Rumo a Hegemonia Perdida – Volume III

POSTADO POR: admin seg, 30 de janeiro de 2012

Confira antes os volumes I e II

No post passado dizíamos sobre a revolução liberal
burguesa e seu poder de transformação, transformação essa que deixou a
sociedade um tanto mais complexa, e não menos conflitiva. A aliança entre a indústria
bélica+bancos+interesses nacionais
produziram duas guerras mundiais, setenta milhões
de mortos, isso sem contar os feridos.
Da
revolução francesa até o início do século XX, os levantes políticos foram
intensos no mundo. Com uma característica particular: a tomada de assalto do
aparelho de Estado era feita apenas por um pequeno grupo bem-armado determinados em pontos estratégicos (estações ferroviárias, portos, sedes de
governos) onde o poder político estava (ainda que precariamente) conquistado. 
Hoje se eu assassinar a presidenta com meus amigos que vivem na clandestinidade,
tomar a sede do banco central e declarar o fim da propriedade privada no país, ainda assim seríamos humilhados até no Twitter.
Uma pessoa que pensou
as mais diversas formas de relação com o Estado foi o militante comunista Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937). Segundo o próprio, é possível observar,
desde as primeiras décadas do século XX, uma abertura de canais de ação política das
classes sociais subalternas (partidos políticos, eleições e sindicatos, por
exemplo). Dessa forma, Gramsci rompeu com uma visão que restringia o Estado. Na ótica gramsciana,
o Estado pode ser dividido em duas esferas: De um lado, a sociedade política,
representada pelas agências burocráticas e aparelhos estatais; e de outro,
a sociedade civil, que se materializa nos aparelhos privados de hegemonia (Federação de Indústrias, Associação de Moradores, Sindicato das Empregadas Domésticas, Federação dos
Bancos, dos Bancários, Entidade dos Estudantes, Professores, Entidade dos
Comerciantes) que tem como objetivo desenvolver canais de
interlocução com o restante da sociedade (blogs,
revistas, propagandas, reportagens pagas, festas, cursos de formação) e também defendem os
interesses político-econômicos das frações de classe (difundindo certas visões
de mundo, criminalizando outras e claro produzindo
CONSENSO!). 
Assim
podemos afirmar que o governo Dilma não é o puro reflexo de seu jeito sargentona-diretora-de-escola, ou apenas
um governo pau mandado das vontades do Lula. Mas o Estado brasileiro é uma
condensação das disputas e relações sociais presentes na sociedade civil brasileira.
Então
amigos, digo com tranqüilidade, é na sociedade
civil,
através das entidades de classe que representam interesses políticos
(daí serem chamadas de aparelhos “privados” de hegemonia.) que o pau come! Pra vocês terem poder, ou melhor, para vocês e seus pares terem o poder precisam ter apoio na
sociedade civil. A Primazia na sociedade civil garante a determinado grupo a
aceitação de outros grupos a seu projeto de poder.
E a primazia é a hegemonia, que deve ser entendida como uma busca
permanente de construção e consolidação da direção e do consenso junto a outras
frações de classe, disseminando valores e visões de mundo através da cultura e
ideologia.
Agora
pensem comigo: Quem é mais organizado, possui alianças com outros setores da
sociedade do país e participação dentro da ossatura material do estado (isso
mesmo ossatura material – cargos, mandatos…)? Latifundiários ou o MST?
Evangélicos anti-aborto ou feministas de esquerda? Banqueiros ou trabalhadores
assalariados? Quem tem apoio da “grande mídia”? Quem financia os candidatos que
vencem as eleições? O governo desses eleitos tendem a favorecer quem? E assim
vai…
Agora, amiguinhos, terminem
para mim esse post nos comentários: De que classe social os amigos vieram?
Quais grupos freqüentam? O que consomem?
Respondendo essas questões
podemos imaginar com alguma precisão o que vocês pensam, aspiram e assim por diante…
Até.

COMENTÁRIOS




OBS. O campo de e-mail é de preenchimento obrigatórios, mas uma vez preenchidos não será mostrado na mensagem. Já o campo de nome é obrigatório, mas pode ser preenchido com um pseudônimo.

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